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Women & architecture: General resources

Recommended resources on women in architecture and related fields, providing location info for print resources and links for digital resources.

Recommended books

Other resources

Association for Women in Architecture + Design (“Committed to advancing women in the architectural and design professions”)

Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation. Working since 2002 “to broaden the collective understanding about the roles women have in shaping the spaces in which we exist and to ensure a vibrant future for all women in the building professions.” See BWAF’s Dynamic national archive collection, “a searchable database documenting the work of women architects and designers who have contributed to the places and spaces of the United States.”

The International Archive of Women in Architecture. Since 1985, “collecting, preserving, and providing access to the records of women's architectural organizations and the professional papers of women architects, landscape architects, designers, architectural historians and critics, and urban planners.” See IAWA’s Biographical database  documenting “women's involvement in architecture and landscape architecture, industrial and interior designer, and urban planning from around the world.”

National Association of Women in Construction

National Association of Women in Real Estate Businesses

Sisters in the Building Trades. Facebook page for the Washington state based international network.

Tradeswomen, Inc. Promoting women in construction and related trades since 1979.

Where are the Women? Measuring Progress on Gender in Architecture,” research report compiled by ACSA (Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture)

WikiD: Women, Wikipedia, Design (#wikiD) “an international education and advocacy program working to increase the number of Wikipedia articles on women in architecture and the built environment.”

Recommended for all architectural research

Specialized resources on related topics

Anthony, Kathryn H., “Designing for Diversity: Implications for Architectural Education in the Twenty-first Century,” Journal of Architectural Education, May 2002, p.257-267 (via JSTOR)

Barac, Matthew, “Women in academia,” Architectural Review, October 2013, p.112-113

Bond, “Americans belong to one culture,” in William Saunders, Reflections on Architectural Practice in the Nineties, Princeton Architectural Press, NA1996.R34 1996

Charles, Curtis Barnabus, “Ageless Hope: A Report Card on Access and Equity in Architecture Education and Practice,” Journal of Architectural Education, February 2005, p.53-54 (via JSTOR)

Clausen, Meredith, “The Ecole Des Beaux-arts: toward a gendered history,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, June 2010, p.153-161 (via JSTOR)

Davidson, Cynthia & Odile Decq, “A conversation with Odile Decq,” Log, Fall 2014, p.39-45 (via JSTOR)

Groat, Linda N. & Sherry B. Ahrentzen, “Voices for change in architectural education: seven facets of transformation from the perspectives of faculty women,” Journal of Architectural Education, May 1997, p.271-285 (via JSTOR)

Gürel, Meltem Ö. & Kathryn H. Anthony, “The Canon and the Void: Gender, Race, and Architectural History Texts,” Journal of Architectural Education, #3, 2006 (via JSTOR)

Adams, Annemarie, Architecture in the family way: doctors, houses, and women, 1870-1900, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996 (via Ebook Central)

Alvarez, Eva & Carlos Gómez, “The invisible women,” Architectural Review, March 2017, p.52-56

Anscombe, Isabelle, A Woman's touch: women in design from 1860 to the present day, Viking Penguin, NK1174.A57 1984

Blank, Carla & Tania Martin, Storming the Old Boys’ Citadel, Barak Books, 2014 (via Ebook Central)

Clausen, Meredith, “The Ecole Des Beaux-arts: toward a gendered history,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, June 2010, p.153-161 (via JSTOR)

Cole, Doris, From Tipi to Skyscraper: a history of women in architecture, i press, NA1997.C57 1973

Friedman, Alice T., Women and the making of the modern house, Abrams, NA2543.W65F75 1998

Hartman, Jan Cigliano (editor), The women who changed architecture, Princeton Architectural Press, NA1997 .W664 2022

Hayden, Dolores, The Grand domestic revolution: a history of feminist designs for American homes, neighborhoods, and cities, MIT Press, HQ1426 .H33

Martin, Brenda & Penny Sparke, Women’s places: architecture and design 1860-1960, Routledge, NA1997 .W67 2003 (also available via Ebook Central) 

Prussin, Labelle, African nomadic architecture: space, place & gender, Smithsonian Institution Press, NA7461.A1P78 1995

Schwitalla, Ursula, Women in architecture : past, present, and future, Hatje Cantz, NA1997 .A7313 2021

Stratigakos, Despina, “Architects in skirts: the public image of women architects in Wilhelmine Germany,” Journal of Architectural Education, November 2001, p.90-100 (via JSTOR)

Stratigakos, Despina, “Women and the Werkbund: Gender Politics and German Design Reform, 1907-14,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, December 2003, p.490-511 (via JSTOR)

Toromanoff, Agata, Raising the roof: women architects who broke through the glass ceiling, Prestel, NA1997 .T67 2021

Walker, Lynne, “The Entry of Women into the Architectural Profession in Britain,” Woman's Art Journal, Spring/Summer 1986, p.13-18 (via JSTOR)

Willis, Beverly, A girl is a fellow here: 100 women architects in the studio of Frank Lloyd Wright, 2009 (Documentary film). Media Shelf- NA712.5.P73 W65 2009

Berman, Constance Hoffman, “Noble women’s power as reflected in the foundations of Cistercian houses for nuns in thirteenth-century northern France,” in Negotiating Community and difference in medieval Europe, by Katherine Smith & Scott Wells, Brill, 2009 (via Ebook Central) 

Friedman, Alice T., Women and the making of the modern house, Abrams, NA2543.W65F75 1998

King, Catherine & Dianne Sachko Macleod, "Women as patrons and collectors," (via Grove Art Online)

Laurence, Anne, “Women using building in seventeenth-century England: a question of sources? ” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 2003, v. 13, p.293-303 (via JSTOR)

Martin, Meredith, Dairy Queens: the politics of pastoral architecture from Catherine De' Medici to Marie-Antoinette, Harvard University Press, 2011 (via Ebook Central)

Valone, Carolyn, "Women on the Quirinal Hill: patronage in Rome, 1560-1630," Art Bulletin, March 1994, #1, p.129-146 (via JSTOR)

Adams, Annmarie, Designing women: gender and the architectural profession, University of Toronto Press, NA1997.A32 2000

Berke, Deborah, “Making the mold: the lack of diversity in architecture isn’t a simple problem, but there are better ways to approach the issue,” Architect, July 2012, p.35-36

Bertrand, Wendy, Enamored with place: as woman + as architect, Eyeonplace Press, NA1997 .B48 2012

Chang, Lian Chikako, Where are the women? Measuring progress on gender in architecture, Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, October 2014

Dewhirst, Dean, Chasing the sky: 20 stories of women in architecture, Oscar Riera Ojeda Publishers, NA1997.D49 2017

Esperdy, Gabrielle, “The Incredible true adventures of the architectress in America,” Places, September 2012 (via Places journal)

Forsyth, Ann, “In Praise of Zaha: women, partnership, and the star system in architecture,” Journal of Architectural Education, November 2006, #2, p.63.-65 (via JSTOR)

Frichot, Hélène, How to make yourself a feminist design power tool, Spurbuchverlag, NA2543.F45 F75 2016

Hall, Jane, Breaking ground: architecture by women, Phaidon, NA1997 .H35 2019

Kiisk, Linda, 20 on 20/20 vision: perspectives on diversity and design, AIA Diversity Committee; Society of Architects, NA737.5.T94 2003

Kullack, Tanja (editor), Architecture: a woman’s profession, Jovis Verlag, NA1997 .A744 2011

Mark, Laura, “Women in architecture survey 2017: pay gap widens between male and female architects,” Architects’ Journal, February 9, 2017, p.26-31

Murray, Christine, et al, “Women in practice,” Architects’ Journal, January 2012, p.22-611

Schalk, Meike, et al (editors), Feminist futures of spatial practice : materialism, activism, dialogues, pedagogies, projections, Spurbuchverlag, NA2543.F45 F445 2017

Scott Brown, Denise, Having Words, Architectural Association, NA2540 .S36 2009

Scott Brown, Denise, “Sexism and the star system in architecture,” in Architecture: a place for women, Ellen Perry Berkeley (editor), Smithsonian Institution Press, NA1997.A74 1989

Smith, Maria, “Why do women really leave architecture?” The Architectural Review, 2014 (via Architectural Review)

Standley, Kay, et al, “Women and Architecture,” Journal of Architectural Education, 1974, #4, p.78-82 (via JSTOR)

Torre, Susana (editor), Women in American architecture: a historic and contemporary perspective, Whitney Library of Design, NA1997.W65

Wilkins, Craig L., Diversity among architects: from margin to center, Routledge, NA1995 .W55 2016

“Women, space and West African mosques,” in Making and Remaking Mosques in Senegal, by Cleo Cantone, Brill, 2012 (via (Ebook Central)

“Women in Architecture” is an annual theme issue of The Architects' Journal; the most recent are the issues of February 8, 2018; February 9, 2017; January 23, 2015; February 14, 2014; February 7, 2013, and April 26, 2012

Agrest, Diana, et al, The sex of architecture, Harry N. Abrams, NA2543. W65 S48 1996

Ahrentzen, Sherry, “The Space between the Studs: Feminism and Architecture,” Signs, Autumn 2003, p.179-206 (via JSTOR)

Allen, Polly Wynn, Building domestic liberty: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's architectural feminism, University of Massachusetts Press, PS1744.G57Z54 1988

Brooke, Kaucyila, Gendered Geographies, Hochschule für Gestaltung und Kunst Zürich, NA2543.W65A4 2002

Coleman, Debra, et al, Architecture and Feminism, Princeton Architectural Press, NA2543.F45 A73 1996

Colomina, Beatriz, et al, Sexuality & space, Princeton Architectural Press, NX650.S8 S48 1992

Darling, Elizabeth & Nathaniel Robert Walker (editors), Suffragette city: women, politics and the built environment, Routledge, NA2543.W65 S84 2020

Durning, Louise & Richard Wrigley, Gender and architecture, J. Wiley & Sons, NA2543.W65 G455 2000

Fischer, Lucy, “City of Women: Busby Berkeley, Architecture, and Urban Space,” Cinema Journal, Summer 2010, p.111-130 (via JSTOR)

Frichot, Hélène, et al (editors), Architecture and feminisms: ecologies, economies, technologies, Routledge, NA2543.F45 A735 2018

Garber, Marjorie B., Sex and real estate: why we love houses, Pantheon Books, HQ-536 .G349 2000

Hayden, Dolores & Gwendolyn Wright, “Architecture and Urban Planning,” Signs, Summer 1975, #4, p.923-933 (via JSTOR)

Rendell, Jane, et al, Gender Space Architecture, Routledge, NA2543.W65 G46 2000 (also available via Ebook Central)

Rüedi, Katerina, et al, Desiring practices: architecture, gender, and the interdisciplinary, Black Dog Publications, NA2543.W65D47 1996

Sanders, Joel (editor), Stud: architectures of masculinity, Princeton Architectural Press, NA2542.4 .S78 1996

Schleier, Merrill, Skyscraper cinema: architecture and gender in American film, University of Minnesota Press, 2009 (via Ebook Central)

Stafford, William, “The Gender of the place: building and landscape in women-authored texts in England of the 1790s,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 2003, v.13, p.305-318 (via JSTOR)

Ainley, Rosa (editor), New frontiers of space, bodies, and gender, Taylor & Francis, 2001 (via Ebook Central)

Darling, Elizabeth & Nathaniel Walker (editors), Suffragette city: women, politics and the built environment, Routledge, NA2543.W65 S84 2020

Foxhall, Lin & Gabriele Neher, Gender and the city before modernity, John Wiley & Sons, 2012 (via Ebook Central)

Hayden, Dolores, “What would a non-sexist city be like? Speculations on housing, urban design, and human work,” Signs, Spring 1980, #3, p.S170-S187 (via JSTOR)

Lambright, Anne & Elisabeth Guerrero, Unfolding the City: women write the city in Latin America, University of Minnesota Press, 2007 (via Ebook Central)

Sewell, Jessica Ellen, Women and the everyday city: public space in San Francisco, 1890-1915, University of Minnesota Press, 2011 (via Ebook Central)

Spain, Daphne, Constructive feminism: women’s spaces and women’s rights in the American city, Cornell University Press, 2016 (via Ebook Central)

Spain, Daphne, How women saved the city, University of Minnesota Press, 2001 (via Ebook Central)

Stratigakos, Despina, Women's Berlin: building the modern city, University of Minnesota Press, 2008 (via Ebook Central)

Women and the American City,” Signs, Spring 1980 (Theme issue)

Bridges, Bonnie Louise, Performative essentialism and subjectivity as difference : the paradox of feminism and architectural form, Harvard University, Doctor of Design (1995), NA2500 .B816x

Brown, Lori A. (editor), Feminist practices : interdisciplinary approaches to women in architecture, Ashgate, NA2543.F45 F46 2011

Durning, Louise & Richard Wrigley, Gender and architecture, Wiley, NA2543.W65 G455 2000

Frichot, Hélène, How to make yourself a feminist design power tool, Spurbuchverlag, NA2543.F45 F75 2016

Frichot, Hélène et al (editors), Architecture and feminisms : ecologies, economies, technologies, Routledge, NA2543.F45 A735 2018

Heynen, Hilde & Gülsüm Baydar (editors), Negotiating domesticity : spatial productions of gender in modern architecture, Routledge, NA2543.W65 N44 2005 (also available via ebook)

Rendell, Jane, et al, Gender space architecture : an interdisciplinary introduction, Routledge, NA2543.W65 G46 2000 (also available via ebook)

Schalk, Meike, et al (editors), Feminist futures of spatial practice : materialism, activism, dialogues, pedagogies, projections, Spurbuchverlag, NA2543.F45 F445 2017

Spain, Daphne, Constructive feminism : women's spaces and women's rights in the American city, Cornell University Press, 2016 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central)

Adams, Parveen & Elizabeth Cowie (editors), The Woman in question: M/f, MIT Press, HQ1154 .W83 1990

Femenias, Maria Luisa & Amy A. Oliver, Feminist Philosophy in Latin America and Spain, Editions Rodopi, 2007 (via Ebook Central)

Feminist Studies (journal on gender issues and activism; issues from 1972 are available via JSTOR, with a 1-year delay)

Hypatia (journal of feminist philosophy; issues from 1986 to 2012 are available via JSTOR)

Irigaray, Luce, Speculum of the other woman, Cornell University Press, HQ1154 .I7413 1985

James, Susan, “Feminism,” 2004 (via the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Janovicek, Nancy, No place to go: local histories of the battered women's shelter movement, UBC Press, 2007 (via Ebook Central)

Moi, Toril (editor), French feminist thought: a reader, Blackwell, HQ1617 .F75 1987

Signs: journal of women in culture & society (issues from 1975 to 2015, available via JSTOR)

Cranz, Galen, “Women in Urban Parks,” Signs, Spring 1980, p.S79-S95 (via Jstor)

Mohn, Tanya, “The little-known women behind some well-known landscapes,” New York Times, October 21, 2020

Prentice, Helaine Kaplan, "Conferences: A Century of women: evaluating gender in landscape architecture,” Landscape Journal, 2003, #2, p.166-169

Riddle, Danette, "Earth girls rock," L.A. Architect, March/April 2000, p.20-24 (On four Los Angeles landscape architects)

Tankard, Judith B., “Defining their turf: pioneer women landscape designers,” Studies in the Decorative Arts, Fall/Winter 2000, #1, p.31-53 (via JSTOR)

Way, Thaïsa, "Early social agendas of women in landscape architecture," Landscape Journal, 2006, v.25, # 2, p.187-204

“Women and the Profession” Landscape Architecture, May 1995 (Theme issue)

Anderton, Frances, “Women of substance: Julia Morgan and L.A.'s female architects,” KCET website, September 12, 2012

Brouverman, Neal, “6 Women who changed the face of L.A. architecture,” Los Angeles magazine, September 2015 (via lamag)

California Women in Environmental Design (CWED) was active from 1989 to 1994; archives are at the IAWA.

Diamond, Kate, "A herstory for women in architecture," L.A. Architect, October 1991, p.5-7

Elliot, Marguerite & Maria Karras (editors), The Woman's Building & Feminist Art Education, 1973-1991: a pictorial herstory, Otis College of Art & Design, NX180 .F4 W65 2011

Hays, Sarah & Marcie Homer (editors), Broadening the discourse: 5th annual conference, California women in environmental design (exhibition catalog), NA1997.H39 1992

Moore, Ann, "Breaking down the barriers: LA's minority and women architects," L.A. Architect, February 1990, p.[6]-7

Organization of Women Architects & Design Professionals (OWA) A San Francisco-based network established in 1972.

Sheine, Judith, "California architects discuss sexual politics," Architecture, April 1992, p.24

Takac, Balasz, "Inside Womanhouse, a beacon of feminist art," Widewalls, June 2, 2019

Womanhouse (archival materials via Judy Chicago Research Portal)

Women in Architecture, SCI-Arc, February 24, 1976 (Shelly Kappe moderates a panel consisting of Lynn Paxton, Claire Forest, Margo Siegel, Inga Rose, Ena Dubnoff, Margo Heymann, and Mary Nastanero; Available via the SCI-Arc Media Archive)

Zimmerman, Anne, "Women and Architecture," Architecture: The AIA Journal, April 1990, p.36

Akkurt, Cigdem T., “Social and spatial hierarchy of women in the architecture of the Topkapi harem,” Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, Fall 1992, p.42-43 (via JSTOR)

Antonaccio, Carla M., “Architecture and behavior: building gender into Greek houses,” The Classical World, May/June 2000, #5, p.517-533 (via JSTOR)

Arnot, Rachel Z., “The sexism of American kitchen design,” The Atlantic, October 2015

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz, More work for mother: the ironies of household technology from the open hearth to the microwave, BasicBooks, TX23.C64 1983

Lupton, Ellen, Mechanical brides: women and machines from home to office, Princeton Architectural Press, HQ1420.L87 1993

Roberts, Marion, Living in a man-made world: gender assumptions in modern housing design, Routledge, NA2543.W65 R64 1990

Robertson, Una A., The illustrated history of the housewife, 1650-1950, St. Martin’s Press, HD8039.H842 G77

Spain, Daphne, Gendered spaces, University of North Carolina Press, HQ1150 .S68 1992

Wright, Gwendolyn, Moralism and the model home: domestic architecture and cultural conflict in Chicago, University of Chicago Press, NA7238.C4W74

Canel, Annie, et al, Crossing boundaries, building bridges: comparing the history of women engineers, 1870s-1990s, Taylor & Francis, 2000 (via Ebook Central)

Des Jardins, Julie, Madame Curie complex: the hidden history of women in science, The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2010 (via Ebook Central)

Deutsche, Rosalyn, et al, “Feminist Time: a conversation,” Grey Room, Spring 2008, #31, p.32-67 (via JSTOR)

Gender, Place and Culture: a journal of feminist geography (Issues available in the stacks for 1995-1998)

Hall, Jane, Woman made: great women designers, Phaidon, NK1174 .H35 2021

Jacoby, Lee, “An interview with Saba Manesh,” Horrocks Engineers, updated August 5, 2020 (regarding gender pay gap in the construction industry)

Levit, Briar (editor), Baseline shift : untold stories of women in graphic design history, Princeton Architectural Press, NC998 .B375 2021

Malloy, Judy, Women, art, and technology, MIT Press, N72.T4 W66 2003

Staeheli, Lynn A. & Patricia M. Martin, “Spaces for Feminism in Geography,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, September 2000, p.135-150 (via JSTOR)


Please note

  • These guides are intended to provide initial orientation, and suggest a variety of different lines of investigation—not take the place of individual research.
  • All the resources cited here--print and digital--are available through the Kappe Library at SCI-Arc.Items not available at SCI-Arc are not included.
  • Surveys covering multiple projects are preferred over monographic studies focusing on specific works or individuals.
  • Resources on Los Angeles and Southern California are stressed.
  • Proprietary digital resources (Avery Index, Oxford Art Online, ArtStor, etc) can be accessed on-campus at SCI-ARC via any SCI-Arc internet provider. Off-campus they can be accessed 24/7 via the Kappe Library proxy server, and a valid SCI-Arc Network username and password.

The Kappe Library at SCI-Arc

The Kappe Library hours:
Monday, Tuesday & Thursday: 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.
Wednesday & Friday : 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
Saturday: Noon to 6:00 p.m.
Sunday: Noon to 10:00 p.m.
Access Kappe Library online resources:
Be sure to activate EZProxy to access all proprietary databases: