Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Race & ethnicity in architectural discourse & practice: General resources

Recommended resources on the general issue of racial and ethnic diversity in architecture, providing location info for print resources and links for digital resources.

Organizations / programs

American Institute of Architects’ (AIA), “Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion” page. Features links to programs, initiatives and scholarships offered through AIA. (See also: “Guides for Equitable Practice”)

Beyond the Built Environment, advocacy group. 

Dark Matter University

Design Justice for Black Lives

National Organization of Minority Architects (NOMA)

NCARB by the Numbers, “insights into data along the path to licensure, diversity in the profession, and more.”

Other resources

Blakemore & Jennett, "Racism,"  The Oxford Companion to the Body, 2003 (via Oxford Reference Online)

Nnoli, "Ethnicity," The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, 2004  (via Oxford Reference Online)

Ripstein, “Multiculturalism,” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1998

Recommended for all architectural research

Specialized resources on related topics

Anthony, Kathryn H., “Designing for Diversity: Implications for Architectural Education in the Twenty-first Century,” Journal of Architectural Education, #4, 2002, p. 257-267 (PDF via Jstor)

Append X, culture, theory, praxis (A journal of architectural theory published 1993-1996)

Davis, Charles L., "Viollet-le-Duc and the body: the metaphorical integrations of race and style in structural rationalism," Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly, #4, 2010, p. 341-348

Wilkins, Craig L., Diversity among architects: from margin to center, Routledge, NA1995 .W55 2016

Armborst, Tobias, et al, The arsenal of exclusion & inclusionActar Publishers, HT167 .A84 2017

Dwyer, Claire & Caroline Bressey, New Geographies of Race and Racism, Ashgate, 2008 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central)



Armborst, Tobias, et al, The arsenal of exclusion & inclusion, Actar Publishers, HT167 .A84 2017 

Banton, Michael, “Theories of Race,” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1998 

Bindman, David, Ape to Apollo: aesthetics and the idea of race in the 18th century, Cornell University Press, 2010 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Hammonds, Evelynn Maxine, Nature of difference: sciences of race in the United States from Jefferson to genomics, MIT Press, 2009 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Harris, Cheryl I., “Whiteness as property,” Harvard Law Review, Vol.106, #8, June 1993 (via the School of Public Health, University of Maryland) 

HoSang, Daniel, et al., Racial formation in the twenty-first century, University of California Press, 2012 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

McDonald, Jason, American ethnic history, Edinburgh University Press, 2007 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

National Association of African American / Hispanic and Latino / Native American Studies (NAAAS) 

The Other, Otherness and Alterity (via PostColonialWeb) 

Prashad, Vijay, Everybody was Kung Fu fighting: Afro-Asian connections and the myth of cultural purity, Beacon Press, 2001 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Raphael-Hernandez, Heike, AfroAsian Encounters: Culture, History, Politics, New York University Press, 2006 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Rattansi, Ali, Racism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2007 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Winant, Howard, New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice, University of Minnesota Press, 2004 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Harris, Dianne Suzette, “Race, space, and the destabilization of practice,” Landscape Journal, Vol.26, #1, 2007 (introduction to theme issue) 

Sandoval-Strausz, Andrew K., “Viewpoint: Latino vernaculars and the emerging national landscape," Buildings and Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum, Spring 2013, vol.20, #1 (PDF via Jstor) 

Gaye, Theresa Johnson, Spaces of conflict, sounds of solidarity: music, race, and spatial entitlement in Los Angeles, F869.L89 A2533 2013 

Gilmore, Ruth Wilson, Golden gulag: prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California, University of California Press, HV9475.C2G73 2007 

Hise, Greg, "Identity and social distance in Los Angeles," Landscape Journal, March 2007, p. 45-60  

Jensen, Joan M., “Apartheid: Pacific Coast style,” Pacific Historical Review, August 1969, p. 335-340 (PDF via Jstor)

Johnson, Gaye Theresa, Spaces of conflict, sounds of solidarity: music, race, and spatial entitlement in Los Angeles, University of California Press, F869.L89 A2533 2013 

Markwyn, Abigail M., Empress San Francisco; The Pacific Rim, the Great West, and California at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, University of Nebraska Press, 2014 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central) 

Minorities in Architecture Panel, SCI-Arc, January 28, 1976 (Ray Kappe moderates a panel consisting of Jack W. Haywood, David Angelo, Jesus Arguelles, Arthur Silvers in the SCI-Arc Media Archive) 

Preston, Steven A., “New in town: ethnic diversity enriches the LA suburbs,” Planning, January 2012, p. 32-35 

Torres-Rouff, David Samuel, Before L.A.: race, space, and municipal power in Los Angeles, 1781-1894, Yale University Press, 2013 (ebook via Proquest Ebook Central)  

Please note

  • These guides are intended to provide initial orientation, and suggest a variety of different lines of investigation—not take the place of individual research.
  • All the resources cited here--print and digital--are available through the Kappe Library at SCI-Arc.Items not available at SCI-Arc are not included.
  • Surveys covering multiple projects are preferred over monographic studies focusing on specific works or individuals.
  • Resources on Los Angeles and Southern California are stressed.
  • Proprietary digital resources (Avery Index, Oxford Art Online, ArtStor, etc) can be accessed on-campus at SCI-ARC via any SCI-Arc internet provider. Off-campus they can be accessed 24/7 via the Kappe Library proxy server, and a valid SCI-Arc Network username and password.

The Kappe Library at SCI-Arc

The Kappe Library physical facility is currently closed due to the COVID-19 quarantine.
Access Kappe Library online resources:
Be sure to activate EZProxy to access all proprietary databases: