Skip to Main Content

Medical buildings: General resources

Recommended resources on medical building types, past and present, providing location info for print resources and links for digital resources.

Recommended books

Recommended image resources

Search “hospital” in Detail Inspiration

Other resources

American Hospital Directory (Statistics)

Health Care Design magazine

"Hospital," Oxford Art Online

Kobus, Building type basics for healthcare facilities, RA967 .H434 2008

Medical Economics magazine

Pevsner, “Hospitals,” A History of Building Types, NA4170.P48

U.S. News & World Report, America's Best Hospitals (Ranking guide marketed since the 1990s)

Explore organizations & institutions

AIA Academy of Architecture for Health (AAH)

American Hospital Association

Center for Health Design (Interdisciplinary advocacy group)

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (“Accredits and certifies more than 20,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States”)

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

National Library of Medicine Medline

Recommended for all architectural research

Medical building chronology

Forty, A., "The Modern Hospital in England and France," in Buildings and Society, edited by Anthony D. King, Routledge & Kegan Paul, NA2543.S6

Foucault, Michel, The Birth of the clinic: an archaeology of medical perception, Routledge, R133. F6913

Henderson, John, The Renaissance Hospital: healing the body and healing the soul, Yale University Press, RA989.I8H46 2006

MASS Design Group, “Afflicted form: a history of the hospital,” Harvard Design Magazine, 2015, #40, p.168-176

Nightingale, Florence, Notes on Nursing: what it is and what it is not, 1860 (via University of Pennsylvania)

Sloane, David Charles, “Scientific Paragon to Hospital Mall: The Evolving Design of the Hospital, 1885-1994,” JAE, November 1994, p.82-98 (via JSTOR)

Stone, P. J., "Elements of the Hospital 1300-1900," Architectural Review, June 1965, p.413-416

Adams, Annmarie, Medicine by design: the architect and the modern hospital, 1893-1943, University of Minnesota Press, 2008 (via Ebook Central)

Adams, Annmarie, “Decoding modern hospitals: an architectural history,” Architectural Design, March/April 2017, p.16-23

AIA Academy of Architecture for Health, Health Facilities Review, The Images Publishing Group, RA967.A32 2004 (20th century designs and plans)

AIA & U.S. Dept. of Health, Guidelines for the Construction & Equipment of Hospital and Medical Facilities, RA967.G83 1993

"Health Buildings: Four New Types," Architectural Forum, July 1957

"Health Care Facilities," Architectural Record, August 1981 (Building types study)

"Heath Care Facilities," Architectural Record, May 1994 (Building types study)

Hosking, Sarah & Liz Haggard, Healing the Hospital Environment : Design, Maintenance and Management of Healthcare Premise, E & FN Spon, 1999 (via Ebook Central)

"Hospitals," Architectural Record, October 1987 (Building types study)

Hughes, Jonathan, “Hospital-City,” Architectural History, 1997, Vol.40, p.266-288 (via JSTOR)

Logan, Cameron, “Preserving health: modern hospitals as historic places,” APT Bulletin, 2011, Vol.42, #2/3, p.45-50 (via JSTOR) 

"The Medical Body in Modern Architecture," Daidalos, no. 64, 1997 (Theme issue)

"Medical Facilities," Architectural Record, April 1964 (Theme issue)

"Medical Facilities," Architectural Record, February & September 1975 (Building types study)

"Patients' Rooms: Why So Ugly?" Progressive Architecture, July 1966

"Tomorrow's Hospital Must Be Different," Architectural Forum, February 1950

Verderber, Stephen & David Fine, Healthcare in an era of radical transformation, Yale University Press, 2000

"Wither the Hospital?" Architectural Record, July 1997

Adams, John, et al (editors), Essential environmental health standards in health care, World Health Organization, 2008 (via Ebook Central)

AIA Healthcare Design Awards (Awarded since 2009)

Guenther, Robin & Gail Vittori, Sustainable healthcare architecture, John Wiley & Sons, 2013 (via Ebook Central)

“Hospital as building type,” Architectural Review, March 2002 (Theme issue)

Kobus, Richard L., Building type basics for healthcare facilities, J. Wiley, RA967.R67 2008

Komiski, Bruce King, Children’s hospitals 3, Images Publishing Group, RJ24 .D47 2012

Leibrock & Harris, Design Details for Health: Making the Most of Interior Design's Healing Potential, 2011 (via Ebook Central)

Leydecker, Sylvia, Designing the patient room: a new approach to healthcare interiors, Birkhäuser Verlag, RA967 .L49 2017

Meuser, Philipp, Medical facility and health care: construction and design manual, DOM Publishers, RA967.M435 2011

Nikki-Weller, Christine, Hospital architecture, Braun, NA6763 .W448 2012

Patton, Cindy (editor), Rebirth of the Clinic: Places and Agents in Contemporary Health Care, University of Minnesota Press, 2010 (via Ebook Central)

Prasad, Sunand, “Typology quarterly: hospitals,” Architectural Review, May 2012, p.67-79

Shulman, Ken, “A culture of caring: designing hospitals in the global marketplace,” Metropolis, October 2012, p.80-86, 92, 94, 96

Shulman, Ken, “Healing machine,” Metropolis, May 2013, p.82-89, 118

​Xiaojuan, Ding & Li Aihong (editors), Hospital design, Hong Kong Artpower, RA967.H59 2013 vol.1 & 2

Medical Buildings A to Z

Bozikovic, Alex, “Health by the hearth,” Architectural Record, July 2018, p.126-130

Moorhouse, Timothy, Children’s hospice design manual, Hospice Education Institute, RA967 .M64 2010

Moorhouse, Timothy, Hospice design manual: for in-patient facilities, Hospice Education Institute, RA1000 .M66 2006

National Hospice & Palliative Care Organization


Komiski, Bruce King, Children’s hospitals 3, Images Publishing Group, RJ24 .D47 2012

Leydecker, Sylvia, Designing the patient room: a new approach to healthcare interiors, Birkhäuser Verlag, RA967 .L49 2017

Meuser, Philipp (editor), Hospitals and medical facilities: construction and design manual, DOM Publishers, RA967 .H673 2019

Meyers, David W., “Medical facilities in the age of Obamacare,” Urban Land, January/February 2014, p.48-54

Nikki-Weller, Christine, Hospital architecture, Braun, NA6763 .W448 2012

Nikki-Weller, Christine & Hans Nickl, Healing architecture, Braun, RA967 .H393 2013

Xiaojuan, Ding & Li Aihong (editors), Hospital design, Hong Kong Artpower, RA967.H59 2013 vol.1 & 2

Medical Design Online (Medical device engineering industry news)

Sullivan, Frank & Jeremy C. Wyatt, ABC of Health Informatics, BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2006 (via Ebook Central)

Iniewski, Krzysztof (editor), Medical Imaging: Principles, Detectors, and Electronics, Wiley-Interscience, 2009 (via Ebook Central)

LeVine, Harry, Medical imaging, Greenwood, 2010 (via Ebook Central)

Literature, Arts & Medicine Database (New York University)

Rostenberg, Bill, Architecture of medical imaging, John Wiley & Sons, RA967.R67 2006

Serlin, David (editor), Imagining Illness: Public Health and Visual Culture, University of Minnesota Press, 2010 (via Ebook Central)

Van Dijck, José, Transparent Body: A Cultural Analysis of Medical Imaging, University of Washington Press, 2005 (via Ebook Central)

Emergency Medical Services World

Guenther, Robin, Sustainable healthcare architecture, John Wiley & Sons, 2013 (via Ebook Central)

Jencks, Charles, “Maggie’s Centre, cancer and commitment: the future of wellness,” AV Monographs, #200, 2017, p.54-59

"Medical Office Buildings," Architectural Record, December 1950 (Theme issue)

Schlosser, Peter, “Med trends,” Urban land, July 2008, p.86-90 (On the medical office building market)

Vickery, Christine Guzzo, et al (editors), Modern clinic design: strategies for an era of change, Wiley, 2015 (via Ebook Central)

"Asylum," Oxford Art Online

Chrysikou, Evangelia, Architecture for psychiatric environments and therapeutic spaces, IOS Press, 2014 (via Ebook Central)

Rutherford, Sarah, “Landscapers for the Mind: English Asylum Designers, 1845-1914,” Garden History, Summer 2005, p.61-86 (via JSTOR)

Savuto, Giampietro, “’Living in the treatment’,” Domus, April 2017, p.125-127

Yanni, Carla, The architecture of madness: insane asylums in the United States, University of Minnesota Press, 2007 (via Ebook Central)

Allen, James E., Nursing Home Administration, Springer, 2011 (via Ebook Central)

American Seniors Housing Association

Anderzhon, Jeffrey, et al, Design for Aging: International Case Studies of Building and Program, John Wiley & Sons, 2012 (via Ebook Central)

Assisted Living Federation of America

Burton, Elizabeth, “Care-home environments and well-being,” Journal of architectural & planning research, Autumn 2010, Vol.27, #3, p.237-256

Chalfont, Garuth, Design for nature in dementia care, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2008 (via Ebook Central)

“Housing typologies for the elderly,” Detail, September 2012 (Theme issue)

Marquardt, Gesine, “Design for dementia,” Volume, #29, 2011, p.114-116

Metzger, Christoph, Building for Dementia, Jovis, NA2545.M4 M48 2018

Peters, Terri, “Socially inclusive design in Denmark: the maturing landscape,” Architectural Design, March/April 2014, p.46-53

Bhattacharya, Nandini, The Sanatorium of Darjeeling,” from Contagion and Enclaves: Tropical Medicine in Colonial India, Liverpool University Press, 2012 (via JSTOR)

Chrysikou, Evangelia, Architecture for psychiatric environments and therapeutic spaces, IOS Press, 2014 (via Ebook Central)

Colima, Beatriz, “X-ray architecture: the tuberculosis effect,” Harvard Design Magazine, #40, 2015, p.70-91

O’Rourke, Katherine, “Guardians of Their Own Health: Tuberculosis, Rationalism, and Reform in Modern Mexico,” JSAH, March 2012, p.60-77

American Animal Hospital Association

Cutri, Pat, “North Lakes Veterinary Hospital,” Architecture Australia, July/August 2017, p.36-43

DVM 360 (Vet news journal sponsors an annual design competition)

International Veterinary Information Service

Raskin, Laura, “The cows come home,” Architectural Record, July 2013, p.80-85

Alternative Keywords

Ambulance stations, Animal hospitals, Apothecaries, Asylums, Blood banks, Bloodmobiles, Cardiology, Children's hospitals, Clinics, Convalescent hospitals, Dental clinics, Dental hospitals, Dental offices, Dental schools, Dispensaries, Emergency medical centers, Emergency rooms, Endocrinology, Extended care facilities, Geriatric hospitals, Gastroenterology, General health, Geriatrics, Gynecologic and obstetric hospitals, Gynecology, Halfway houses, Health care buildings, Homes for the aged, Hospices, Hospitals, Immunology, Infirmaries, Lazarettos, Medical centers, Medical clinics, Medical colleges, Medical museums, Medical offices, Medical schools, Mental health facilities, Mental health facilities, Mental hospitals, Military hospitals, Neurology, Nursing homes, Oncology, Operating rooms, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, Otolaryngology, Out-patient clinics, Patient hotels, Pediatrics, Personal care homes, Pharmacies, Poison control centers, Psychiatric clinics, Psychiatric hospitals, Psychiatry, Physical therapy units, Pulmonary care, Radiography, Rehabilitation centers, Rest homes, Rheumatology, Sanatoriums, Supportive housing, Surgical centers, Surgical clinics, Surgical suites. Terminal care facilities, Transplantation, Urology, Vaccination centers, Veterans' hospitals, Veterinary colleges, Veterinary hospitals, Veterinary schools

Please note

  • These guides are intended to provide initial orientation, and suggest a variety of different lines of investigation—not take the place of individual research.
  • All the resources cited here--print and digital--are available through the Kappe Library at SCI-Arc.Items not available at SCI-Arc are not included.
  • Surveys covering multiple projects are preferred over monographic studies focusing on specific works or individuals.
  • Resources on Los Angeles and Southern California are stressed.
  • Proprietary digital resources (Avery Index, Oxford Art Online, ArtStor, etc) can be accessed on-campus at SCI-ARC via any SCI-Arc internet provider. Off-campus they can be accessed 24/7 via the Kappe Library proxy server, and a valid SCI-Arc Network username and password.

The Kappe Library at SCI-Arc

The Kappe Library Summer hours (May 13 - August 9, 2024):
Monday-Friday: 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
Saturday: Noon to 6:00 p.m.
Sunday: CLosed
Access Kappe Library online resources:
Be sure to activate EZProxy to access all proprietary databases: